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你知道什么是DCS控制系统吗?

2021-02-06 15:55:56 来源:http://www.sdjkyqyb.com/ 53

DCS系统又称为DCS控制系统(Distributed Control System),即集散控制系统,是以微处理器为基础,采用控制功能分散、显,示操作集中、兼顾分而自治和综合协调的设计原则的新一代仪表控制系统。集散控制系统简称DCS,也可直译为“分散控制系统”或“分布式计算机控制系统”。
DCS system, also known as distributed control system (DCS), is a new generation of instrument control system based on microprocessor, which adopts the design principles of decentralized control function, display, centralized operation, taking into account the division and autonomy and comprehensive coordination. Distributed control system (DCS) is also called "distributed control system" or "distributed computer control system".
DCS采用控制分散、操作和管理集中的基本设计思想,采用多层分级、合作自治的结构形式。其主要特征是它的集中管理和分散控制。目前DCS在电力、冶金、石化等各行各业都获得了其广泛的应用。
DCS adopts the basic design idea of decentralized control, centralized operation and management, and adopts the structure of multi-layer classification, cooperation and autonomy. Its main feature is its centralized management and decentralized control. At present, DCs has been widely used in electric power, metallurgy, petrochemical and other industries.
DCS硬件体系结构:
DCS hardware architecture:
(1)现场控制单元
(1) Field control unit
现场控制单元一般远离控制中心,安装在靠近现场的地方,其高度模块化结构可以根据过程监测和控制的需要配置成由几个监控点到数百个监控点的规模不等的过程控制单元。现场控制单元的结构是由许多功能分散的插板(或称卡件)按照一定的逻辑或物理顺序安装在插板箱中,各现场控制单元及其与控制管理级之间采用总线连接,以实现信息交互。
The field control unit is usually far away from the control center and installed near the site. Its highly modular structure can be configured into process control units with different scales from several monitoring points to hundreds of monitoring points according to the needs of process monitoring and control. The structure of the field control unit is composed of a lot of boards (or cards) with scattered functions, which are installed in the board box according to a certain logical or physical order. Each field control unit and its control management level are connected by bus to realize information exchange.
               浙大中控dcs卡件XP313
现场控制单元的硬件配置需要完成以下内容:插件的配置 根据系统的要求和控制规模配置主机插件(CPU插件)、电源插件、I/O插件、通信插件等硬件设备;硬件冗余配置 对关键设备进行冗余配置是提高DCS可靠性的一个重要手段,DCS通常可以对主机插件、电源插件、通信插件和网络、关键I/O插件都可以实现冗余配置。
The hardware configuration of the field control unit needs to complete the following contents: configuration of plug-ins; configuration of host plug-ins (CPU plug-ins), power plug-ins, I / O plug-ins, communication plug-ins and other hardware devices according to the system requirements and control scale; hardware redundancy configuration Redundancy configuration of key equipment is an important means to improve the reliability of DCS. DCs can usually achieve redundancy configuration of host plug-in, power plug-in, communication plug-in, network plug-in and key I / O plug-in.
硬件安装 不同的DCS,对于各种插件在插件箱中的安装,会在逻辑顺序或物理顺序上有相应的规定。另外,现场控制单元通常分为基本型和扩展型两种,所谓基本型就是各种插件安装在一个插件箱中,但更多的时候时需要可扩展的结构形式,即一个现场控制单元还包括若干数字输入/输出扩展单元,相互间采用总线连成一体。就本质而言,现场控制单元的结构形式和配置要求与模块化PLC的硬件配置是一致的。
The hardware installation of DCS is different. For the installation of various plug-ins in the plug-in box, there will be corresponding provisions in the logical sequence or physical sequence. In addition, the field control unit is usually divided into basic type and extended type. The so-called basic type is that all kinds of plug-ins are installed in a plug-in box, but more often it needs an extensible structure, that is, a field control unit also includes several digital input / output expansion units, which are connected by bus. In essence, the structure and configuration requirements of field control unit are consistent with the hardware configuration of modular PLC.
(2)操作站
(2) Operation station
操作站用来显示并记录来自各控制单元的过程数据,是人与生产过程信息交互的操作接口。典型的操作站包括主机系统、显示设备、键盘输入设备、信息存储设备和打印输出设备等,主要实现强大的显示功能(如模拟参数显示、系统状态显示、多种画面显示等等)、报警功能、操作功能、报表打印功能、组态和编程功能等等。
The operation station is used to display and record the process data from each control unit, and it is the operation interface of human and production process information interaction. Typical operation station includes host system, display device, keyboard input device, information storage device and print output device, which mainly realizes powerful display function (such as analog parameter display, system status display, multiple screen display, etc.), alarm function, operation function, report printing function, configuration and programming function, etc.
另外,DCS操作站还分为操作员站和工程师站。从系统功能上看,前者主要实现一般的生产操作和监控任务,具有数据采集和处理、监控画面显示、故障诊断和报警等功能。后者除了具有操作员站的一般功能以外,还应具备系统的组态、控制目标的修改等功能。从硬件设备上看,多数系统的工程师站和操作员站合在一起,仅用一个工程师键盘加以区分。
In addition, DCS operation station is divided into operator station and engineer station. From the perspective of system function, the former mainly realizes the general production operation and monitoring tasks, and has the functions of data acquisition and processing, monitoring screen display, fault diagnosis and alarm. In addition to the general functions of the operator station, the latter should also have the functions of system configuration and control target modification. From the point of view of hardware equipment, the engineer station and operator station of most systems are combined, and only one engineer keyboard is used to distinguish them.
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